Cardiovascular System >
Varicose Veins

“Dilated superficial veins, usually in the lower limbs”

Risk Factors
  • Increasing age
  • Multi parity
  • Pregnancy
  • Obesity
  • Sex (female)
  • Previous DVT
Aetiology
  • Increased pressure in small superficial veins
Pathophysiology
  • Vein wall dilatation and secondary valvular incompetence
Clinical Presentation
  • The cosmetic appearance of dilated superficial veins
  • Pain/tenderness
  • Cramps
  • Bleeding
  • Restless legs
  • Venous eczema
  • Ulcers
Investigations
  • Duplex Ultrasound
Management
  • Conservative:
    • Weight loss
    • Avoid exacerbating factors (prolonged standing/sitting)
    • Compression stockings
  • Medical:
    • Sclerotherapy
  • Surgical:
    • Endothermal ablation
    • Phlebectomy
    • High ligation and vein stripping of the long saphenous vein
Complications
  • Venous ulcers
  • Thrombophlebitis
  • Deep vein thrombosis
  • Chronic venous insufficiency
  • Varicose eczema

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