“Acute or chronic inflammation of the myocardium”

  • Infection
    • Most commonly due to viral infection if acute (Coxsackie virus most common in Europe and the USA but most viruses are potential causes).
    • May also be bacterial (diphtheria most common) or fungal/ parasitic
  • Toxic
    • Medication
    • Exposure to heavy metals
    • Shock
    • Radiation
  • Immune-Related
    • Allergy
    • Heart transplant rejection
    • Autoimmune disorders
  1. The infection causes inflammation and injury to the myocytes.
  2. This leads to decreased myocardial contractility and cardiomyopathy.
  3. Arrhythmias occur when the injury heals by scarring
Clinical Presentation
  • Ranges from asymptomatic (incidental finding on ECG) to heart failure/ arrhythmia/ sudden cardiac death
  • Fatigue
  • Chest pain
  • Fever
  • Dyspnoea
  • Palpitations
  • Tachycardia
  • Signs of heart failure
  • Soft S1/ S4 gallop on auscultation
  • On Examination:
    • Soft S1/ S4 gallop on auscultation
  • Bloods:
    • FBC, U+E, CK, CRP, LFT, Troponin
  • Imaging:
    • Chest X-Ray
  • Special:
    • ECG – serial changes of ST-elevation/depression, T wave inversion, atrial arrhythmias or transient AV block.
    • Myocardial biopsy
  • Supportive treatment for symptom relief and treatment of the underlying cause
  • Treatment of heart failure if present
  • If severe may require a transplant
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy due to myocardial destruction
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Pulmonary oedema
  • Cardiogenic shock
  • Arrhythmias
  • Recurrent myositis

Leave a Reply

Search Our Notes

Get Updates

Get updates direct to your inbox as we post more notes!

Our Latest Notes