Ophthalmology >
Amblyopia

“A reduction in visual acuity due to a problem with focussing in early childhood”

Aetiology
  • Strabismus, refractive defects, congenital cataracts
Pathophysiology
  • One eye becomes passive to the dominant eye due to a disconnection from the brain as the brain learns to ignore that eye as it does not produce a good quality image
Clinical Presentation
  • Poor visual acuity
  • Obvious strabismus
  • Loss of red reflex in congenital cataracts
Investigations
  • Snellen chart
  • Formal acuity testing
  • Cover-uncover test
Management
  • Treat refractive error with glasses
  • Treat amblyopia with occlusion- patching or atropine to good eye
  • Treat congenital cataracts with surgery
Complications
  • Risk of permanent double vision if do not start treating children before age 7

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