Reproductive System & Sexual Health >
Single Hormonal Contraception

“Contraception containing no oestrogen, only progestin. For women where oestrogen is contraindicated”

Method of Action
  • Fallopian tubes: reduced cilia beat and contractions
  • Ant pituitary and hypothalamus: inhibits LH surge and GnRH release
  • Ovary: stops ovulation
  • Cervix: thick viscid mucous plug
  • Endometrium: reduced oestrogen receptors, reduced receptivity to blastocyst
Side Effects
  • Altered menstrual pattern e.g. irregular bleeding
  • CNS – nausea and mood changes
  • Water and sodium retention e.g. oedema, weight gain, breast tenderness, hypertension
  • Androgenic effects: oily skin, acne, hirsutism, weight gain
  • Liver: increased LDL and lipoprotein lipase leading to fat deposition and atherosclerosis
Examples
  • POP: Desogestrel stop ovulation by inhibiting LH surge
  • Sub-dermal implant: Nexplanon slow release of etonogestrel
  • Injectable progestins: prevents ovulation, reduces oestrogen and bone mineral density
    • Given every 10-13wks IM or SC
  • IUS: Mirena contains levonorgestrel
    • Slow-release over 3-5yrs, reduced S/E as direct application to the endometrium

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