Reproductive System & Sexual Health >
Non-Hormonal Contraception

“Contraceptive techniques including IUDs, Barrier Methods, and Sterilisation”

Copper Intrauterine Devices (IUD)
  • T-shaped coil contains copper
    • Toxic to sperm and ova preventing fertilisation
    • Inflammatory endometrial reaction preventing implantation
    • Cu ions reduce cervical mucous permeability to sperm
  • 5-10yrs. No fertility delay, hormonal side effects. Very effective >99%
  • Complications include perforation 2/1000, expulsion 1/20, relative increase in ectopic pregnancy, pelvic infection, bleeding when first administered
  • Can be used as emergency contraception
Barrier Methods
  • Female and male condoms
    • Prevent HIV and STI transmission
    • 98% effective if perfect use
  • Diaphragms
    • 92-96% effective used with spermicide
    • Inserted prior to sex. Leave in place >6hrs to ensure sperm in the lower reproductive tract is unlikely to be alive
  • Cervical caps and dams
Sterilisation
  • Tubal occlusion. Laparoscopic. Filshie clips. Failure in 1/200
  • Vasectomy. Occlude vas deferens. Failure 1/2000. Post-vasectomy semen analysis
Others
  • Natural family planning e.g. using apps to track menstrual cycle and basal body temperature
    • Typical use 7 in 100 women pregnant in 1 yr
    • Cervix changes around fertile time. Mucous changes. BBT rises 0.2-0.4 degrees after ovulation
    • Withdrawal method

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